Evergrande: Not So Grand Financial Statements?


Evergrande Group is the newest listed firm to unexpectedly teeter on the verge of chapter.

When companies are thrust into public view for the mistaken causes, my first thought is at all times whether or not we may have seen the difficulty coming forward of time.

As a certified accountant, I deal with the audited monetary statements as my first port of name on this query. Many dismiss these as out of date, incomplete, opaque, and manipulated, and whereas there may be some advantage to such critiques, these statements can reveal rather a lot about whether or not hassle could also be on the horizon.

To see if Evergrande’s travails may have been anticipated, I checked out its annual studies for 5 years, from 2016 to 2020.

So what did I uncover? Should we now have seen the Evergrande storm brewing?

Evergrande Growth Falls Off a Cliff

  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Revenue, in Millions Renminbi (RMB) 211,444 311,022 466,196 477,561 507,248
Revenue Growth 59% 47% 49% 2% 6%

Evergrande’s income progress fell constantly from 59% in 2016 to 2% in 2019 earlier than recovering to six% in 2020. The largest drop occurred between 2018 and 2019, when it declined from 49% to 2%.

This is troubling since quickly slowing progress is greater than only a warning signal: It can even incentivize unhealthy habits within the type of each accounting tips and dangerous enterprise practices in an effort to make the crucial prime and backside line numbers look fairly.

The Case of the Disappearing Margins

Change, 2017 to 2020 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Gross Profit Margin (GPM) -12% 28% 36% 36% 28% 24%
EBITDA Margin -14% 20% 30% 30% 20% 16%
Operating Profit Margin (OPM) -15% 20% 29% 30% 20% 15%
Net Profit Margin (NPM) -6% 8% 12% 14% 7% 6%
Selling and Marketing Expenses, in Millions RMB +86 15,983 17,210 18,086 23,287 31,962
Selling and Marketing Expenses as Percent of Revenue +2% 8% 6% 4% 5% 6%

Evergrande’s margins didn’t do nicely both. Gross revenue margin (GPM), EBITDA margin, working revenue margin (OPM), and internet revenue margin (NPM) all decreased between 2016 and 2020.

The most worrying decline was the GPM droop. GPM fell by 12% over simply three years, from 2018 to 2020. The Management Discussion and Analysis part of Evergrande’s annual report explains why:

  • According to the 2020 report, “Gross revenue for the Year decreased primarily resulting from a lower within the common promoting costs brought on by the nationwide gross sales promotion actions and gross sales worth concessions of the Group because of COVID-19.”
  • The 2019 report said, “Gross revenue price was 27.8% for the Year, which was primarily as a result of decrease promoting costs of clearance inventory properties and the slight will increase in development and set up prices per sq. meter for delivered properties, land prices and curiosity capitalized.”

Translation: The fall in GPM was primarily resulting from sharp cuts in promoting costs to push property gross sales.

As the desk reveals, the opposite margins not solely fell, they have been virtually minimize in half.

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This collapse in margins was pushed, in fact, by slowing GPM. But growing promoting and advertising and marketing bills have been crucial contributing components as nicely. These bills not solely rose as a share of gross sales over the past three years of our pattern, additionally they ballooned by 86% between 2017 and 2020. The primary purpose? An effort to kickstart quickly flagging gross sales. This might have been an indicator of the bigger concern: severe sectoral weak spot.

Big Swings in Cash Flows, in Millions RMB

  2016 2017 20ed18 2019 2020
Cash Flow from Operations (CFO) -58,610 -150,973 54,749 -67,357 110,063
CFO earlier than Interest Payments -27,734 -96,901 109,837 -566 188,097
Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF) -44,063 -111,696 99,487 -15,729 169,791

The accrual methodology will help conceal weak spot within the earnings statements, however money flows are far much less vulnerable to such manipulation. So whereas Evergrande’s revenues rose and its earnings stayed flat over the five-year pattern, the agency’s money flows inform a special story. Both CFO and free money move to the agency (FCFF) saved swinging from detrimental to optimistic and again to detrimental. But we’ll get to these swings later.

The CFO needs to be optimistic. Otherwise, it signifies that the corporate is unable to generate income from its operations. An erratic CFO implies that the agency could also be on the mercy of lenders simply to fund its operations.

Moreover, the pattern of volatility and detrimental CFOs doesn’t change even when we take a look at CFO earlier than curiosity funds: Evergrande’s core operations have been typically bleeding money, even with out accounting for curiosity funds.

The Magic of Big Accruals

  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
CFO, in Millions RMB -58,610 -150,973 54,749 -67,357 110,063
CFO/Net Income -3.33 -4.07 0,82 -2.1 3.5

The CFO to internet earnings ratio is each not often used and fairly revealing. As such, it’s one among my favourite indicators.

Net earnings is a mixture of accruals and money, whereas CFO is pure money. So this ratio tells how a lot of the booked earnings for a 12 months have been acquired in money. In wholesome corporations, this ratio might be flat or rising. A falling or risky ratio signifies an unusually excessive quantity of accruals and thus each are alarming.

Evergrande’s ratio was extremely risky. Why? Not as a result of internet earnings over the previous 5 years was largely flat in absolute numbers, however as a result of its CFO went up and down like a yo-yo.

What precipitated the volatility of the ratio and CFO? An unusually excessive quantity of accruals — i.e., non-cash gadgets — within the earnings assertion. That is an enormous fats pink flag.

So what have been these non-cash gadgets?

Boosting Cash by Delaying Payments

When a agency delays cost to suppliers, it’s typically an try and bolster CFO in response to poor money inflows.

The related indicator is the variety of days payable excellent (DPO), or what number of days the price of gross sales is mendacity unpaid. All else the identical, an growing DPO is troubling. Evergrande’s DPO jumped from 379 to 553 days over the previous 5 years.

  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Trade Payables, in Millions RMB 182,994 257,459 423,648 544,653 621,715
Number of Days Payables Outstanding (DPO) 379 404 418 513 553

The firm’s 2020 money move assertion reveals that CFO soared from a deficit of RMB 67 billion in 2019 to a surplus of RMB 110 billion in 2020. That’s a internet enhance of RMB 177 billion. An enormous driver of this money surge? The bounty of commerce payables. Trade payables rose by RMB 77 billion in 2020 over 2019 regardless of declining property development exercise.

That is unsustainable.

Robbing Peter to Pay Paul

The money move assertion reveals how Evergrande misallocated money in 2020.

The adjusted CFO is an efficient start line. It reveals the impact of delaying funds to suppliers. If the rise in payables in 2020 had been the identical as that in 2019, or RMB 29 billion, then 2020 CFO wouldn’t be a RMB 110 billion surplus however a deficit of RMB 16 billion: 110-155+29.

That’s an essential quantity to remember after we see that Evergrande repurchased RMB 4 billion in shares and paid RMB 59 billion in dividends in 2020.

Since the agency borrowed RMB 303 billion in 2020, we’d count on not less than a few of these funds paid for the share repurchases and dividend funds. But that was not the case. Repayments to lenders of RMB 398 billion outstripped that RMB 303 billion in new loans.

What does that imply? Payments to suppliers have been doubtless delayed, boosting CFO primarily to pay dividends and purchase again shares.

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Increasing Write-Downs

Evergrande held important quantities of properties beneath growth (PUD) and properties held on the market (PHS) on its stability sheet. In mixture these accounted for about 60% of the agency’s property as of year-end 2019 and 2020.

While PUD is self-explanatory, PHS is property that has been constructed and is awaiting sale.

Evergrande’s accounting coverage requires PUD and PHS be written right down to their internet realizable values (NRV) if their NRVs are lower than the price. This write-down totaled RMB 3.22 billion in 2020, a 39% enhance from the 2019 write-down of RMB 2.32 billion which itself was a 132% enhance from the 2017 write-down of RMB 1 billion.

The write-downs is probably not big within the context of Evergrande’s income or asset numbers, however the relative will increase are materials. They most certainly point out a deteriorating marketplace for the agency’s properties. The pattern most likely commenced in 2017 and is mirrored within the slowing gross sales progress.

Bankers See the Rising Risk First

Evergrande’s be aware to accounts mentions the weighted common price of the corporate’s common borrowings. This is used to capitalize curiosity prices. This price had been growing since 2017.

Evergrande’s Borrowing Costs

2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
8.27% 8.09% 8.11% 8.63% 9.46%

Now, this price may enhance for under two causes: both an increase within the common lending price in China or elevated credit score threat on the a part of the borrower.

China’s prime lending price has stayed flat since 2017, dropping solely resulting from pandemic-induced stimulus efforts in 2020. Yet Evergrande’s price of borrowing didn’t fall. Overall, its price jumped by a major 137 foundation factors (bps) in three years. This means that lenders believed extending credit score to Evergrande was an more and more dangerous proposition.

Addicted to Debt?

Evergrande’s overreliance on debt is the favored rationalization for its predicament. But the agency’s all-important debt-to-equity ratio truly declined between 2016 and 2020.

  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Debt to Equity 2.78 3.02 2.18 2.23 2.04

This weird pattern has a simple rationalization, nevertheless: It is solely resulting from fairness leaping from RMB 193 billion in 2016 to RMB 350 billion in 2020. To an off-the-cuff analyst, that will not have raised any pink flags.

(Evergrande’s fairness elevated for 2 primary causes: The agency acquired majority — however by no means 100% — pursuits in subsidiaries. So the ensuing quantities of non-controlling pursuits (NCI) saved growing group fairness. Secondly, these NCIs saved injecting money as fairness.)

So how may we now have found that Evergrande’s debt drawback was worsening?

Two calculations give us perception on this query. In each circumstances, the upper the quantity the higher.

  1. Total debt to CFO reveals how lengthy a agency would want to repay present loans if present CFO held regular.
  2. Total debt to FCFF signifies how a lot time it could take to repay the debt if present FCFF was maintained.

For Evergrande, each of those ratios have been extraordinarily risky and detrimental in three of the 5 years.

  2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Total Debt to CFO -19 -8 6 -1,413 4
Total Debt to FCFF -12 -7 7 -51 4

An Accident Waiting to Happen

The Altman Z-score method measures how shut an organization is to chapter. The Z-score considers 5 ratios, every of which addresses one among 5 issues: profitability, leverage, liquidity, solvency, and exercise. The decrease a agency’s Z-score, the higher the chance it would go bankrupt. A Z-score under 1.8 signifies a excessive likelihood of chapter, whereas one among 3 or above signifies a agency is within the protected zone and will keep solvent.

From 2016 by means of 2020, Evergrande’s Z-score was lower than 1. Its Z-score for the 5 years averaged 0.77 and dropped from 0.81 in 2017 to 0.62 in 2020.

Of the 5 Z-score ratios, these measuring exercise and profitability both stayed the identical within the latter case or rose within the former. The firm was thus worthwhile and environment friendly. Why? Because each ratios are pushed by income, which is accrual based mostly and simpler to “produce.” What fell have been the liquidity and solvency ratios. Which makes good sense given the huge borrowing and the money crunch.

An enormous takeaway on this evaluation is to be cautious of drawing massive conclusions from any ratio that features a income quantity.

Tile for The Incredible Upside-Down Fixed-Income Market: Negative Interest Rates and Their Implications


So what may we now have pieced collectively from analyzing Evergrande’s audited financials?

Altogether our evaluation reveals a narrative of quickly slowing progress, rising bills, shrinking margins, shoddy high quality of earnings, and money move deficits that have been plugged by delaying funds to suppliers and huge borrowing, the price of which saved rising.

Debt defaults, bankruptcies, and so on., by no means occur “immediately.” They’re much less like a lightning strike than a long-term sickness. Heart illness and different such maladies are likely to function in stealth mode for a lot of their life cycles, going invisible, and undetected and thus untreated. Yet throughout this time, they’re slowly build up and changing into increasingly more harmful. By the time their signs explode into view, drastic therapy is required.

Yet Evergrande-like dangers could be detected early. We simply must be curious sufficient.

For extra perception from Binod Shankar, CFA, go to The Real Finance Mentor.

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All posts are the opinion of the writer. As such, they shouldn’t be construed as funding recommendation, nor do the opinions expressed essentially replicate the views of CFA Institute or the writer’s employer.

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Binod Shankar, CFA

Binod Shankar, CFA, is a Dubai-based blogger, keynote speaker, govt coach, and host of the The Real Finance Mentor, and seems incessantly on CNBC Arabia and Asharq Bloomberg as a market analyst. He is a CFA charterholder and a chartered accountant.


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