Alternative investments accounted for $13 trillion in property underneath administration (AUM) in 2021, practically twice what it was 2015. By 2026, that determine is predicted to succeed in greater than $23 trillion, based on Preqin analysis. Boom occasions are right here for enterprise capitalists, personal fairness (PE), and hedge fund managers.
Although 2022 hasn’t been form to enterprise capital, amongst different options, some fund managers are faring higher than others. Why? Because they’ll finesse their investments’ valuations. PE funds don’t have any each day mark-to-market accounting, to allow them to easy losses out throughout a number of quarters.
The ingenuity of this follow is that though they’ve comparable danger publicity PE returns seem uncorrelated to equities. On paper, all the pieces seems to be nice.
Correlations are the hallmark of other investments. Generating uncorrelated returns in a yr when the normal 60/40 equity-bond portfolio has posted double digit losses is a fast method to seize investor curiosity and capital. However, correlations are like icebergs floating within the sea, there’s a lot hiding beneath the floor.
So simply what are the pitfalls of utilizing correlations to decide on various methods?
The Alternative Champions
To discover out, we chosen seven well-known methods from the hedge fund universe which have attracted billions from capital allocators. Our information is sourced from HFRX, which has each day returns going again to 2003. This practically 20-year interval covers a number of market cycles when various methods ought to have demonstrated their worth by offering diversification advantages.
We calculated these hedge fund methods’ correlations to conventional asset lessons. Three of those methods — fairness hedge, merger arbitrage, and event-driven — have S&P 500 correlations in extra of 0.5. It wouldn’t make a lot sense so as to add these to an fairness portfolio given their comparable danger profiles.
However, three methods demonstrated low inventory market correlations with out excessive correlations to US investment-grade bonds. This suggests they could provide some worth for buyers.
Hedge Fund Strategies: Correlations to Stocks and Bonds, 2003 to 2022
Quantifying Diversification’s Benefits
When offered with a variety of other methods, a capital allocator ought to choose these with the bottom correlations to shares and bonds since they reveal the very best diversification potential.
To check this speculation, we sorted the seven hedge fund methods by their common correlations to shares and bonds and ran simulations that added a 20% allocation to every technique to a 60/40 equity-bond portfolio after which rebalanced on a quarterly foundation.
Contrary to expectations, including an alternate allocation didn’t enhance the Sharpe ratios for the 2003 to 2022 interval.
What’s much more uncommon is that there doesn’t appear to be any relationship among the many correlations. For instance, merger arbitrage had the next common correlation to shares and bonds than fairness market impartial. Yet including the latter to a conventional portfolio didn’t result in a considerably larger Sharpe ratio.
60/40 Portfolio Plus 20% Alternative Allocation: Sharpe Ratios, 2003 to 2022
We subsequent calculated the utmost drawdowns for all of the portfolios. These all occurred through the international monetary disaster (GFC) in 2009. Both shares and bonds fell, very like they’ve this yr.
Our equity-bond portfolio plunged 35%, whereas our diversified portfolios all declined between 31% and 39%. Such danger discount shouldn’t be notably spectacular.
But as with our earlier Sharpe ratio evaluation, the utmost drawdowns didn’t fall additional when extra diversifying various methods had been added.
We would anticipate a linear relationship between lowering correlations and drawdowns, no less than till correlations attain zero. If they change into too adverse, as with a tail danger technique, then diversification advantages deteriorate once more. We’re anticipating an sad smile, however nobody is smiling.
So, are correlations failing buyers of their efforts to determine helpful various methods?
60/40 Portfolio Plus 20% Alternative Allocation: Max Drawdowns, 2003 to 2022
Fair Weather Correlations
One partial rationalization for our outcomes is that correlations are deceiving. Even if they’re near zero on common, there nonetheless could also be durations of excessive correlation. Unfortunately, correlations typically spike precisely when buyers require uncorrelated returns.
Take merger arbitrage for instance. The technique is usually uncorrelated to equities, however when inventory markets crash, mergers disintegrate. A portfolio with lengthy positions in acquirable corporations and quick positions in buying corporations may be constructed beta-neutral. But that doesn’t negate financial cycle danger, which can be inherent in shares.
All our seven various methods misplaced cash through the international monetary disaster between 2008 and 2009. Convertible arbitrage misplaced much more than equities. That’s fairly an accomplishment because the S&P 500 declined by 53%.
Hedge Fund Strategy Performance through the Global Financial Crisis (GFC), 2008 and 2009
Why else have options failed to enhance Sharpe ratios and scale back drawdowns? Because, frankly, they’re horrible at being profitable. They could generate enticing returns earlier than charges, however their web returns for buyers have been poor over the past 19 years.
The S&P 500 produced a CAGR of 9.5% for the 2003 to 2022 interval, however that isn’t the precise benchmark for hedge fund methods. Beating bonds is a extra affordable aim, and solely merger arbitrage achieved it. And that technique is simply too strongly correlated to equities to supply a lot in the best way of diversification.
Inflation was roughly 2% for this era, so CAGRs under that suggest adverse actual returns. Inflation is far larger immediately, so the goalposts for these methods have moved a lot additional away.
Hedge Fund Strategy Performance: CAGRS and Correlations, 2003 to 2022
Correlations alone will not be sufficient to determine various methods. A extra nuanced strategy is required. Specifically, buyers ought to measure correlations when shares are falling. This will weed out merger arbitrage and different methods which have inherent financial danger.
If calculated accurately, this could reveal that almost all personal asset lessons — PE, VC, and actual property — present the identical danger. They due to this fact provide restricted diversification advantages. We want higher instruments to measure the diversification potential of other methods.
Of course, this doesn’t change the underlying difficulty: Many methods now not generate constructive returns. The common fairness market impartial fund, for instance, misplaced 0.4% per yr since 2003.
The case for uncorrelated adverse returns shouldn’t be a robust one.
For extra insights from Nicolas Rabener and the Finominal group, join their analysis experiences.
If you preferred this submit, don’t overlook to subscribe to Enterprising Investor.
All posts are the opinion of the creator. As such, they shouldn’t be construed as funding recommendation, nor do the opinions expressed essentially mirror the views of CFA Institute or the creator’s employer.
Image credit score: ©Getty Images / maybefalse
Professional Learning for CFA Institute Members
CFA Institute members are empowered to self-determine and self-report skilled studying (PL) credit earned, together with content material on Enterprising Investor. Members can file credit simply utilizing their on-line PL tracker.